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Maier was the William Kenan Jr. Also included are course notes for classes Maier taught on the American Revolution and Colonial America. Ichthyology vol. J37 MIT Libraries News. Post to Cancel. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. It is called "enlarged auctior ," but in a rather extensive comparison I have found only one new title. According to Besterman, it includes about fifteen hundred titles. Eight subject indexes—only the fourth is not alphabetical—make [27] the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum fully usable.

When the reader has familiarized himself with them and apparently very few have done so , he can understand the book and its value to a scholar. Jerome had called his book by the alternative title "De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis," that is to say, "Ecclesiastical Writers," but it was a bibliography of ecclesiastical literature. He soon ran into difficulties and adopted devices to get around them that show bibliographical method in a transitional state.

In "Index I. Professores variarum scientiarum atque artium representans " we find such entries as "Advocatorum Consistorialium, Advocatorum Parisiensis Curiae, Aristotelis Graecorum Interpretum, Arithmeticorum," which we can translate changing to the nominative case as "Consistorial Lawyers, Lawyers of the Parisian Court, Greek Interpreters of Aristotle, Arithmeticians. This "Index IV. Authors Writing on Various Subjects" is awkwardly conceived in terms of the authors but is arranged according to the theological merit of the subjects on which they wrote.

It descends from the Virgin Mary to inventions [28] in the following order: 1 writers about the Virgin Mary, 2 [writers about] the Immaculate Conception, 3 writers who were popes, 4 writers who were cardinals, 5 writers who were French cardinals, 6 women writers, 7 writers about heretics, 8 writers on the prohibition of heretical books, 9 compilers of catalogues of manuscripts, 10 compilers of catalogues of ancient and modern libraries and writers on library science, 11 writers on academies, universities, and Jesuit colleges, 12 writers of catalogues and eulogies of individual academies and their faculties, 13 writers on the inventors of things, arts, and sciences.

The fifth index lists bibliographers of men who have borne the same name. Anton Sander's book on Antonies is an example. The sixth index is a list of bibliographies, which are often autobibliographies, of individual writers and of indexes to their works. The seventh index includes publishers' and booksellers' catalogues. He preferred to put the last two bibliographies here and not in the third index, which contained religious bibliographies. He had already set up a category for writers about the Virgin Mary in the fourth index, but he named others in the eighth.

I [29] cannot see why he placed writers of dictionaries in the eighth and not in the fourth index, and certainly he should have put writers on chemistry and politics in the first and not the eighth index. These irregularities are difficult to explain. In a search for a subject bibliography a modern reader must turn to the first, fourth, and eighth indexes. The classification is complicated but not altogether unusable.

We can of course pardon some faults because modern bibliographers are more demanding than those of While we are mindful of the old saying about those who live in glass houses, we can nevertheless point out inconsistencies, irregularities in procedure, awkward arrangements of materials, and outright errors. He seems to have learned to cite titles in the original languages when he was nearly through collecting them. It was too late to change and furthermore his sources probably often gave him Latin and not the original French or Italian titles.

He also cites the same book with an Italian title. In reading the proof he could have removed the duplication. The article on Augustinus Marloratus seems to have been written before he realized the necessity of bringing the author's name into the first place for the purpose of alphabetizing the entries. He is irregular in regard to critical comment, which the plan of his book did not require.

It will be noticed at once that all but one of these men are Protestants. For example, he adds a paragraph to the citation of a catalogue of heretical writers compiled by Bernardus Luxemburgensis:. Regarding these men [i.

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Epiphanius, St. John Damascene, and others. Critics of the Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum and among them Adrien Baillet, who should have known better, have called for interpretative and critical comments. In all the later history of bibliographies of bibliographies only two [31] men—Gabriel Peignot and Julius Petzholdt—have made a systematic effort to add comments. He has rarely expressed himself so vigorously as he does in the article "Robertus Cocus" Robert Cooke, , where he writes:. He wrote Censura Patrum London, I hear also that a criticism of ancient writers by the same Cooke was published at Helmstadt in octavo in We can easily pardon minor troublesome mistakes in alphabetization.

In an index according to Christian names it is not fatal to have the last name of Christophorus Ferg misspelled Freg. One can usually go from the indexes to the text without much trouble, although a few references lack the name needed as a guide. His plan required him to put subjects into the indexes, but he had no good place to put an article "Bibliothecae.

He put it in its alphabetical place, in a list of names. A curious bibliography of fictitious bibliographies is entered under "Fictae Bibliothecae. The differentiation of biography and bibliography [33] was perhaps less clear then than now, and general treatises on scholarly matters probably seemed more closely akin to bibliographies than we find them to be. Jacobus Gretser, De jure et more prohibendi, expurgandi et abolendi libros haereticos et noxios is obviously a book about books, but it is scarcely a bibliography.

In its conception and execution the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum is excellent. Although rarely consulted, it is still valuable for reference purposes. In plan and arrangement it surpasses, for example, such a modern work of similar size and purpose as A Bibliography of Bibliographies that the famous bibliographer Joseph Sabin published in As I have already said, the references are as accurate as those to be found in three of the bibliographies of bibliographies published [35] in the last seventy years. Unpopular as it has been, it nevertheless seems to me a good method of dealing with intractable material.

A classified bibliography requires both an index of subjects and an index of authors. An alphabetical index of subjects requires cross-references and an index of authors. Contemporary recommendations of the book have a perfunctory flavor. Valentin Heinrich Vogler, who wrote an admirable survey of scholarly books entitled Introductio universalis in notitiam cuiuscunque bonorum scriptorum Helmstadt, , is representative. He passed a judgment on a book that he had not seen. Vogler did not see it [the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum ]. Nevertheless, with only a few excerpts available to him, he did not use bad judgment in saying that it offers only a brief review of authors arranged according to their names [74] and [36] makes no comments on the way in which these men have dealt with their materials.

Still, the work is very useful Utilis tamen valde labor est , although I have found many authors cited, of whom some have no pertinence and others tell the lives of men who are famous for their reputations and deserts rather than in literary endeavors and writing. From not a few entries it would also appear that he has often not seen the books, but, deceived by the title, he has nevertheless cited them. In a chapter entitled "De catalogorum scriptoribus," Morhof begins with general remarks about the kinds of bibliographies that a scholar [37] then had within his reach, but fails to identify clearly the bibliography of bibliographies as a special variety.

He should have said more. Adrien Baillet, who quotes this review, mentions also a brief notice by Henning Witte, who seems to have an equally superficial knowledge of the book. He obtained it after considerable delay and with some difficulty. Spitzel's additions amount to nearly one hundred titles, which are grouped in sixty categories. They show that Spitzel understood the true nature of a bibliography of bibliographies, but they do not show the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum to be seriously incomplete or unsatisfactory.

Others are bibliographies hidden in non-bibliographical works. For example, one can suspect his pleasure in adding "Joh. Nadasi, in libro cui Tit. Annus dierum memorab. Such victories are easy. His failure brings some comfort to a modern reader who does [39] not find them very convenient. In his additions, for example, Spitzel cites some bibliographies of medicine.

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A generation after Spitzel, J. His praise is significant because he was not accustomed to stint himself in condemning books that he did not like. We can at least say that he did not treat his predecessor generously. In a preface addressed to the reader he says that he has doubled the number of bibliographies cited and has added twelve hundred biographical works.

He could scarcely have added the biographies if he had fully perceived the nature and usefulness of a bibliography of bibliographies. Teissier was a diligent collector and a good organizer. Although he has corrected errors and has filled in gaps in the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum , he was not always as careful as he should have been. He added two new indexes: Index V Catalogus , pp. These indexes show that Teissier was chiefly interested in biography.

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In order to run them down in the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum one must read the entire book. Teissier assembled all anonymous works in a single place "Auctores anonymi," pp. He removed the brief account of fictitious libraries to a new place Catalogus , p. Consequently, the Catalogus offers the same mixture of Latin titles translated from the vernacular and vernacular titles as we found in the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum. Probably he could not have achieved any substantial improvement in this regard.

He could not see many books that he cited and the sources from which he took the titles usually gave them in Latin translation. In [42] the seventeen pages devoted to authors whose first names begin with "H" Catalogus , pp. He is often careless in details.

Teissier did not improve his technique in the Auctuarium , a supplement published in This book of pages contains many new bibliographies and substantial additions to the indexes. For example, he cites Xenocrates as the writer of a list of geometricians and Varro as the writer of a list of poets. He has brought up to date the list of English bibliographers by adding Henry Holland, who is the H. He knows "Rossus Warwicensus" from John Pits's biobibliographical dictionary of English authors, but of course has not seen Thomas Hearne's edition, which came out a few [43] years later.

In the Auctuarium , the fourth index, "Writers on Various Subjects De variis argumentis scriptores ," has grown enormously. If Teissier had given any attention to remaking the structure of the book, it might have suggested to him the idea of an alphabetical subject index. He has no longer adhered strictly to listing bibliographies in terms of men who specialized in various subjects but shifted somewhat in the direction of an emphasis on the subject.

When he says Auctuarium , p. Wavering of this sort is evidence that he did not fully understand the scheme or did not choose to adhere to it. Although scholars no longer remember Antoine Teissier and his bibliographies, the Catalogus and the Auctuarium offer a uniquely useful summary of seventeenth-century scholarship. In them we find such bibliographies as a list of twenty-two medical bibliographers Auctuarium , p. We can see additional evidence to this effect in the announcement in of a bibliography of bibliographies that did not get into print.

Cornelius a Beughem fl. Presumably the Bibliothecariographia was a treatise on library science. In his subtitle Beughem makes clear what he intended to include in the Bibliotheca bibliothecarum. His bibliographies of incunabula and of medical, juridical, and historical writings as well as his survey of [45] articles in journals a Poole's Index at the end of the seventeenth century! Scholars do not seem to have esteemed Teissier's books very highly then or later and Teissier himself concealed their nature by including a large number of biographies.

The tentative efforts to write lists of books entitled Bibliotheca that might have developed into bibliographies of bibliographies are the subject of the next chapter, but it may be said in advance that they had no important result. Explanations for the disappearance of bibliographies of bibliographies around are readily found. The changes in the intellectual climate [46] around are too varied and numerous to discuss here. It is enough to note that they included the disappearance of bibliographies of bibliographies from the list of scholarly tools.

The listing of books that contain the word Bibliotheca in their titles is a special bibliographical development in the seventeenth century and continues into the eighteenth. It might have led by easy stages to making a bibliography of bibliographies, but it unfortunately attracted little notice and maintained a tenuous existence for only about a century. The word bibliotheca , which often appears in titles, has such more or less bibliographical meanings as bibliography, subject index, catalogue of a public or private library, and collection of materials dealing with a particular subject.

Consequently, a list of books entitled bibliotheca has much in common with a list of reference works and, more particularly, a bibliography of bibliographies. He did not, for example, include the collections of the church fathers that were very familiar to him, although they bore the title Bibliotheca. Many books that he cites are hard to identify: some titles seem to have been made up and others refer to books that were never printed. In either case, he is thinking as a bibliographer, and we can easily conceive the enlargement of his list into a bibliography of bibliographies.

I cannot easily cite an equally instructive and suggestive review of bibliographies. To which are added: the chief European libraries and what travelers ought to notice in visits to them hit upon the same idea of listing bibliothecae. The compiler arranges the titles alphabetically according to the author's last names or, in the case of an anonymous work, according to an important word in the title. Our author begins with Valerius Andreas, Bibliotheca Belgica , a biobibliographical dictionary of writers in the Low Countries. In the letter "A" he includes the Augustanae Bibliothecae Catalogus , which he also enters under the name of the compiler, Elias Ehinger, librarian at Augsburg.

Such titles show that he was thinking in bibliographical terms, for Andreas's book and the Augsburg catalogue are bibliographies and Leclerc's journal was a review of current publications. The titles in this list are interesting because some are rarely mentioned and others are difficult to track down.

Examples are "Augusti sereniss. The most surprising title that the compiler names is "Joan. Brunderii [sic] index librorum MS quae in [53] Bibliothecis Belgicis extant. Down to it is mentioned occasionally by men who had consulted it, but our author probably never saw it and no fragment of it is known to have survived the dispersal of Anton Sander's library. A reference to such a manuscript was by no means an idle display of erudition. Allusions in various seventeenth-century works show that men used this union catalogue. For example, the Spaniard Pedro de Alva y Astorga, the author of several very rare encyclopedic works, which were published at Madrid and Louvain, drew upon it, and the Italian Antonio Possevino quoted it in his Apparatus sacer.

Its compiler has not seen all the books in it. For example, he assigns Petrus Bertius's catalogue of the university library at Leyden to instead of this error is probably a slip of the pen and mentions the famous ghosts announced by Jodocus a Dudinck. With all its faults, this "Series" is nevertheless a respectable piece of work by a man who saw clearly the nature of a bibliography of bibliographies.

A generation later, in , Johannes Gottfried Unger published a pamphlet entitled [54] De libris bibliothecarum nomine notatis , a classified list of books entitled bibliotheca , and added critical and descriptive comments. Julius Petzholdt, who is often a severe judge, deals with it generously, when he says p. Although he seems to be unaware of any predecessor, Unger's idea was not novel. His execution of the idea leaves much to be desired. Since his list contains few, if any, books that cannot be easily found elsewhere, his list has little value and his comments do not enrich it.

His strict adherence to the task of collecting books entitled bibliotheca prevented him from seeing the possible greater usefulness of what he was doing. Morhof, Polyhistor. He points out that the subtitle of Latinius's Bibliotheca gives a good idea of its contents: "Observationes, correctiones et variae lectiones in sacros et profanos scriptores, ex marginalibus notis codicum ejusdem [Latini Latinii] a Dominco Marco editae.

He describes [55] Leclerc's journals by a long quotation from the preface to the first volume. They are, he thinks, a better example of this genre of books than Latinius's collectanea.

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He dismisses Gesner's Bibliotheca universalis with the remark that it "also deserves mention praeterea notatu digna est " and a reference to Morhof, Polyhistor. He does not describe the book by Johannes Groeningius. Unger's account of forty-one theological bibliographies and collections of texts entitled bibliotheca is not altogether bad. He often quotes the titles of chapters from these books or says that a book is a collection of texts and not a bibliography.

Much of this information was even then available in well-organized reference works, and Unger's only contribution is the selecting of the books entitled bibliotheca. His account of legal bibliographies begins with Martin Lipenius, Bibliotheca juridica , "which was published at Frankfurt in as a folio and was enlarged by F. Struve in In this category he cites nine more titles, counting three works by Caspar Thurmann as one book. This combination is not particularly objectionable.

Thurmann had made a classified legal bibliography and finding no publisher, had printed portions as small bibliographies. He finally resigns himself to naming titles in a confused order. Since his book is almost unknown and the entries are often curious, a brief description will not be out of place. The articles are arranged alphabetically according to the adjective that follows the word bibliotheca.

Thus, the list begins with J. Reimann, Bibliotheca acroamatica Hannover, , a condensation of Peter Lambeck's catalogue of manuscripts in the Imperial Library at Vienna. The next entry consists of two columns headed "Bibliotheca Adriani Baillet" and is a brief discussion of the Jugemens des savans and a long summary of a prospectus of a philosophical dictionary that Baillet planned but never published.

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More entries follow in an alphabetical order according to proper names or adjectives derived from proper names or the subject matter. The presence of more than twenty entries entitled "Bibliotheca Biblica" is not surprising, but eleven botanical bibliographies and twelve pages summarizing the Linnean [57] classification seem an unnecessarily generous allotment to that subject.

He shows no sense of proportion in the choice of titles. Out of hundreds of regional biobibliographies he chooses one for Naumburg for mention.


It can have meant very little to most readers of his book, and he might have omitted it. A "Bibliotheca occulta concionum P. Paulini a S. Martin Hancke, the writer of a Silesian biobibliography p. Durey de Noinville His [58] use of an asterisk to mark works containing an alphabetical index of authors shows some bibliographical sense, but the lack of a clear plan of selection and organization makes the book unusable. In a hodgepodge of seven hundred and fifty titles—I take the figure from Besterman—Durey de Noinville may list a book according to its author or its subject without any apparent reason for his choice of either method.

His knowledge of available bibliographies is entirely inadequate. The accounts of reference books dealing with Belgium, church history and France are scanty, [] the list of learned journals is almost worthless, [] and the remarks about journals entitled Mercure exceed somewhat the scope of his enterprise. The efforts that we have surveyed in this chapter produced nothing of lasting value. Durey de Noinville's disorderly book was not good enough to suggest making anything better. All these writers worked independently and made little or no use of their predecessors.

We might see in this fact an omen of the course of bibliographies of bibliographies in the next century. Comprehensive authoritative bibliographies of the most popular fields of scholarship are characteristic products of the eighteenth century. There are many standard bibliographies to set beside it. In Ellies Du Pin published the first volume of the long theological bibliography that only his death was to interrupt.

Many of these works were revised and enlarged during the next century and a half. An edition of the even more successful Bibliotheca latina was begun in and remained incomplete. The new edition of the Bibliotheca graeca begun in was brought to an end, although the work was still incomplete, with an index published in Wolf published four thick volumes of a Bibliotheca hebraea in William Cave, who had begun his bibliographical activities in the seventeenth century, Jacques LeLong, and after the middle of the century J.

Walch satisfied the demands of theologians. Struve compiled exhaustive lists of historical materials and investigations. The many bibliographies by Johann Albert Fabricius reviewed such subjects as church history, missions, and classical, Christian, Jewish, and heathen antiquities. In brief, the eighteenth-century scholar had on his shelves excellent bibliographies of the subjects that he found most interesting. However, he did not have any good guide to them in the form of a bibliography of bibliographies.

The only bibliography of bibliographies that can be dated in the eighteenth century has, as far as I know, disappeared entirely. It is a manuscript dated that was sold at Amsterdam in I have been unable to learn anything about its author. The description is as follows:.

Each epoch in the history of bibliographies of bibliographies has an individuality of its own. In the hands of Conrad Gesner and his successors this variety of bibliography slowly established itself. Although Antoine Teissier was the only one to publish the revision of a predecessor's work, his procedure is characteristic of seventeenth-century scholarship. The eighteenth century neglected the bibliography of bibliographies and let the writings of the sixteenth and seventeenth century in this field sink into obscurity.

In the nineteenth century, as we shall see, men undertook to compile bibliographies of bibliographies with an astonishing disregard of the difficulties of the task and a surprising neglect of previous efforts. Without an exception these men were librarians and should therefore [64] have been fully aware of what they were doing and of what had been done.

Their behavior is nothing less than amazing. I may anticipate the theme of the next chapter by saying that the characteristic aspect of the making of bibliographies of bibliographies in the twentieth century is cooperation. He did not use their books systematically, and he did not exhaust the information that they had collected. Peignot shows his competence as a bibliographer in various ways. Like his predecessors although he seems not to have intentionally imitated them , he includes bibliographies printed as parts of non-bibliographical works.

For example, he quotes at the very beginning a bibliography of books about bees from a local agricultural journal. Within the various articles he arranges the titles chronologically and thus suggests the historical growth of knowledge and bibliography in a particular field. Although bibliographers before him had often added comments, Peignot is more systematic and generous than his predecessors.

Particularly interesting as a technical improvement in bibliographical method are his frequent references to the number of titles in the book that he is citing. During the course of the history that we have surveyed, the standards of accuracy [65] and completeness rose and Peignot attains a very high level in this regard. Peignot's decision to arrange his bibliography of bibliographies in an alphabet of many small subject headings has necessarily reduced the permanent value of his labors or, more correctly, has made it more difficult for us to benefit from them.

Will heresy stand alone or under theology? What will the term philosophy include? Peignot gives no cross-references to aid his reader. Nor is there an alphabetical subject index that would guide the reader to the bibliographies included in the larger headings. Such an alphabetical subject index would have been useful, but I grant at once that an alphabetical subject index to an alphabetical list of subjects seems a strange duplication.

There is, to be sure, a brief classified subject index pp. A serious and inescapable handicap to the permanent usefulness of Peignot's alphabetical list of many small [66] headings is the rapid obsolescence of technical terms. In some cases we can no longer know exactly what Peignot meant by a particular term and therefore cannot immediately turn to a desired entry.

I am all the more sympathetic with them when I read in Neville Braybrooke's account of Christianity in England the comment on Mr. Billy Graham: "In his way he stood for 'positive theology'. Here the term seems to mean "a convincing religion for the man in the street. Peignot does not offer an index of subjects because he believes that his table of contents and his alphabetical arrangement make it unnecessary.

This belief is not well-founded because he subdivides many long articles and gives no cross-references and no indication of subdivisions in the table of contents. The bibliography of an individual classical author appears in its alphabetical place in the article "Classiques" pp. Without a cross-reference from "Bible" pp. It is not immediately obvious that Peignot has arranged his valuable list pp. He would have added little to the size of his book by adding cross-references and he would have made it much easier to use. In general, however, Peignot adheres very strictly to his intention of listing only bibliographies.

We must look with a critical eye at Peignot's classification. Boulard's treatise on bibliographical method stands on the border of what is admissible and should certainly not be placed with "Des livres rares," a list of catalogues of rare books p. Georg Draud, Bibliotheca classica , a classified compilation of titles listed in the semi-annual catalogues of the German booktrade, includes juridical works as a matter of course, but it is not correctly placed in "Droit" p. Anton Francesco Doni's La libraria is a catalogue of Italian books and is not, as Peignot lists it p.

Peignot has seen many of the books that he cites and in this regard surpasses his predecessors. He does not, however, report German authors' names and titles even titles written in Latin with satisfactory accuracy. A more serious fault is, it seems to me, his neglect of obviously important books that he either could have seen or should have known. He knows only two of the six eighteenth-century bibliographies of diplomatics that Namur commends pp. These comments on Peignot's faults can easily obscure our estimate of his merits. His succinct and abundant comments were no doubt useful when he wrote and are still valuable.

His chronological arrangement of titles is a spur to historical meditations on the development of many fields of study. A modern scholar finds it hard to duplicate some information that Peignot has assembled.

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Where else can he easily find bibliographies of the collections of Latin poets, [] dictionaries, [] encyclopedias, [] translators of the classics, [] and accounts of royal and noble writers? Peignot's abundant and informative critical notes deserve special praise.

For example, he comments on catalogues of public libraries pp. A modern cataloguer would probably have separated the catalogues of manuscripts from the catalogues of books. An even more important survey deals with catalogues of private libraries pp. He tells the number of lots offered for sale, remarks on the presence or absence of indexes, and warns us when the catalogue was printed in a small edition. He praises the superb Catalogus Bibliothecae Bunavianae p. He points out the noteworthy collections of journals entitled Mercure and books on the theatre in the Pompadour catalogue p.

He often notes the use of a novel system of classification. One could only wish that Peignot had devoted even more effort to this list. He would have enriched the comments and would have eliminated various works that are not properly included among catalogues of private libraries. It is what he intended it to be: a survey of eighteenth-century bibliography rather than a comprehensive bibliography of bibliographies.

Horne and A. Delandine as his only predecessors. Although these compilations are brief selective lists of a [70] sort not included in this essay, Namur's recognition of them makes it necessary to characterize them briefly. The bibliographical portion pp. Like other writers of handbooks of bibliography, Horne cites bibliographies without aiming at completeness. Horne's Part III, "A Notice of the Principal Works, Extant on Literary History in General, and on Bibliography in Particular," gives the information that it promises but contains no subject bibliographies and therefore cannot be called a general bibliography of bibliographies.

It contains a brief account of "Dictionaries of Literary History" or works that we would call universal biobibliographies pp. One finds in them occasional titles of infrequent occurrence like Christopher Wordsworth, Ecclesiastical Biography, or Lives of eminent men connected with the history of religion in England, from the commencement of the Reformation to the Revolution 6 v. His rather full account of British works has some value but his incomplete foreign list is noteworthy chiefly for such curiosities as Matthias Bellus, Exercitatio de vetere litteratura Hunno-Scythica pp.

Horne devotes the following sections to writers on the materials used in writing and printing pp. A strictly bibliographical "Chapter IV. Books" pp. The most valuable part of Horne's Introduction is the fifth chapter, on bibliographical systems and catalogues. The account of bibliographical systems pp.

Although far from complete, it contains information not easily found elsewhere. It resembles Peignot's similar review, on which Horne has drawn heavily. He concludes with a brief survey of publishers' catalogues pp. Horne did not intend his Introduction to be a bibliography of bibliographies and we need say no more about it.

I have not seen Delandine's original list but have used a later and slightly enlarged version. In this, Etienne Psaume has, according to [72] Namur, added a few books printed between and and the new title "Appendice de l'Essai sur la bibliologie" This, is an annotated chronological list of nearly three hundred and fifty books on the history of printing, catalogues of public and private libraries, and bibliographies of miscellaneous scope. This somewhat casual performance is useful at best for a few curious or informative notes.

The bibliographies do not amount to many more than a hundred and do not offer either in number or variety a satisfactory survey of bibliography. A selection of good catalogues of private libraries chiefly French is the best feature of the "Appendice. This list shows some originality and is worth reading, but it deserves no significant place in the history of bibliographies of bibliographies. Despite its many serious faults this forgotten book deserves some recognition. Namur emphatically disclaimed I, p. In writing his Manuel he had perceived that there were no adequate bibliographies of paleography, diplomatics, and "bibliologie" and he therefore set about compiling them.